What Does Stem Cell Therapy Do? A Deep Dive Into Regenerative Healing

Monica Davis

Monica Davis

Medical Advisor
stem cell, hand with the syringe

Stem cell therapy has been making headlines and generating excitement in the medical community for its potential in treating various diseases. In this article, we will explore what stem cell therapy does, including a list of diseases treated by stem cells, the stem cell therapy success rate, the side effects associated with this treatment, and the method of administering stem cells through stem cell injection.

Table of Contents

    The Basics

    Before diving into the specifics, let’s understand the basics. Stem cells are the body’s raw materials from which all other cells with specialized functions are generated. Under certain conditions, they divide to form more cells called daughter cells. These new cells can either become new stem cells or specialized cells with a specific function like brain cells, blood cells, or heart muscle cells. Cell therapy, also known as regenerative medicine, promotes the reparative response of dysfunctional, diseased, or injured tissue using stem cells or their derivatives.

    List of Diseases

    Regenerative treatments offer hope for addressing numerous diseases and conditions, encompassing a diverse spectrum such as:

    • Blood Disorders: Bone marrow transplants using stem cells have been used for decades to treat conditions like leukemia, lymphoma, and sickle cell anemia.
    • Neurodegenerative Diseases: There are ongoing studies and trials to use stem cells in treating diseases like Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and multiple sclerosis.
    • Heart Diseases: Stem cells have the potential to regenerate heart tissue, and are being investigated for the treatment of heart diseases including heart attacks and congestive heart failure.
    • Orthopedic Conditions: Stem cells are being used to treat various orthopedic issues including osteoarthritis and other joint conditions.
    • Autoimmune Diseases: Conditions like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis are being explored for treatment with stem cells.
    • Spinal Cord Injuries: Research is being conducted on the potential to repair spinal cord injuries.

    Stem Cell Therapy Success Rate

    The success rate of stem cell therapy varies depending on the disease being treated, the type of stem cells used, and the patient’s overall health. For instance, in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (commonly used for certain blood disorders), the success rate is relatively high and well-established. However, for many other conditions, stem cell therapy is still in the experimental stage, and extensive data on success rates is not yet available. It is essential to approach cell therapy with cautious optimism and rely on evidence-based medical advice.

    Understanding the Stem Cell Therapy Process

    Now that we have looked into what therapy does and the diseases it can treat, let’s delve into the stem cell therapy process.

    1. Consultation and Evaluation: The process begins with a consultation with a medical professional specializing in stem cell therapy. The doctor evaluates the patient’s medical history and current health status to determine if they are a suitable candidate for stem cell therapy.
    2. Harvesting of Stem Cells: Once deemed suitable, the next step involves the harvesting of stem cells. This can be from the patient’s own body (autologous) or from a donor (allogeneic). Common sources are bone marrow, adipose tissue, or umbilical cord blood.
    3. Processing of Stem Cells: The harvested stem cells are then processed in a laboratory to isolate and, if necessary, culture and expand the number of cells.
    4. Conditioning (if necessary): For certain treatments, like bone marrow transplantation, patients might undergo conditioning, which includes chemotherapy or radiation to suppress the immune system or make space for the new stem cells.
    5. Stem Cell Injection or Infusion: The processed stem cells are then administered to the patient through injection or infusion. This is a crucial part of the stem cell therapy process, and the method of administration depends on the disease or injury being treated.
    6. Monitoring and Follow-up: After the administration, patients are closely monitored for any adverse reactions or complications, and follow-up care is provided to ensure the best possible outcomes.

    Possible Side Effects

    Like any medical procedure, stem cell therapy can have side effects. These may include:

    • Infection: As with any procedure involving injections, there is a risk of infection.
    • Rejection: In cases where stem cells are harvested from a donor, the patient’s immune system may reject the cells.
    • Adverse Reactions: There can be reactions to the anesthesia or other agents used in the procedure.

    Method of Delivery and Cost

    Injections are the most common method for administering stem cell therapy. The process generally involves harvesting cells, often from the patient’s own body (like bone marrow or adipose tissue), or from a donor source. These cells are then processed and injected directly into the affected area, such as a damaged joint or the bloodstream.

    To learn more about the cost, please check our recent post titled, ‘Stem Cell Therapy Cost: A Comprehensive Guide for 2023’.

    How Does Stem Cell Therapy Work?

    You might be wondering, how does stem cell therapy work? The fundamental principle behind stem cell therapy is the ability of stem cells to differentiate into various cell types and to self-renew.

    When stem cells are introduced into an area of the body with damaged or diseased tissues, they can potentially:

    • Differentiate into the necessary cell types needed for repair or regeneration.
    • Release signaling molecules that reduce inflammation and modulate the immune system.
    • Mobilize the body’s own stem cells to aid in the healing process.
    • Form new blood vessels, improving blood flow to the affected area.

    The actual mechanisms can be more complex and are still the subject of ongoing research. Additionally, the way stem cell therapy works may vary depending on the type of adult stem cells used and the condition being treated. Here you can learn more about the Difference Between Embryonic and Adult Stem Cells.


    Stem cell therapy is an exciting and evolving field that holds the promise to treat a wide range of diseases and conditions. With ongoing research and clinical trials, the list of diseases that can be treated is expected to grow. However, it is important for patients and medical professionals to approach therapy with an understanding of the potential risks and side effects, and to weigh these against the benefits in terms of success rates. Consulting a healthcare professional with expertise in therapy is crucial for those considering this form of treatment.


    National Institutes of Health (NIH). “Stem Cell Basics.” NIH Stem Cell Information Home Page