Myeloid cell (cell of myeloid cell line) is a special type of cell that is the result of the division of hematopoietic stem cells (blood stem cells, or single progenitor cells).
What role do myeloid cells play in the human body?
Myeloid cells, along with the cell subtypes produced by them, form the human immune system, which is responsible for the innate defense against the influence of many pathogenic microorganisms.
Myeloid cells also play a key role in binding innate and adaptive immunity.
Myeloid cell division
After several intermediate stages of development, myeloid cells give rise to several types of specific adult blood cells, including red blood cells, platelets, and also part of the white blood cells (granulocytes, monocytes). This type of hematopoiesis is called myelopoiesis.
The tissue in which myelopoiesis occurs is called myeloid (hematopoietic tissue, which forms a red bone marrow). In the human body, myelopoiesis begins in the liver, at about 6 weeks of fetal development.
Various cell types, that arise as the result of myelopoiesis:
- Basophils – a type of white blood cell that is involved in the development of allergic reactions.
- Neutrophils play a very important role in protecting the body against bacterial and fungal infections.
- Eosinophils – cells of the immune system that protect the human body from parasites.
- Monocytes (present in the blood) – a type of white blood cell that fights certain infections and helps other white blood cells to remove dead or damaged tissue, destroy cancer cells and regulate immunity.
- Macrophages (present in different tissues) – cells that can absorb and digest particles that are foreign or harmful to the body: bacteria, the remains of destroyed cells, etc.
- Erythrocytes (red blood cells). The main goal of red blood cells is to provide a normal supply of oxygen to tissues and organs.
- Platelets are responsible for blood coagulability (the ability to stop bleeding if necessary).